teaching machines

CS 330 Lecture 15 – Makefiles, For Real

February 25, 2013 by . Filed under cs330, lectures, spring 2013.





#ifndef STACK_H
#define STACK_H

struct stack_t {
  int size;
  int capacity;
  int *items;

typedef struct stack_t stack_t;

stack_t *make_stack(int capacity);
void stack_push(stack_t *stack, int item);
int stack_pop(stack_t *stack);
void stack_free(stack_t *stack);



#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#include "stack.h"

#define EZMALLOC(type, n) \
  (type *) malloc((n) * sizeof(type))

stack_t *make_stack(int capacity) {
  stack_t *stack = EZMALLOC(stack_t, 1);  
  stack->size = 0;
  stack->capacity = capacity;
  stack->items = EZMALLOC(int, stack->capacity);

void stack_push(stack_t *stack, int item) {
  if (stack->size >= stack->capacity) {
    fprintf(stderr, "Stack full, you foo bag.\n");

  stack->items[stack->size] = item;

int stack_pop(stack_t *stack) {
  if (stack->size == 0) {
    fprintf(stderr, "Stack empty, you foo bag.\n");

  int item = stack->items[stack->size - 1];
  return item;

void stack_free(stack_t *stack) {


Note to copy and pasters: makefiles rules need to be indented with real tabs, not spaces.

CFLAGS = -std=c99 -g

all: calc

stack.o: stack.c stack.h
  gcc $(CFLAGS) -c stack.c

calc: calc.c stack.o
  gcc $(CFLAGS) -o calc calc.c stack.o

test: calc
  valgrind --leak-check=full ./calc
  # 2 7 / 

  rm -f *.o calc ./a.out


#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

#include "stack.h"

int main(int argc, char **argv) {

  stack_t *stack = make_stack(10);

  for (int i = 1; i < argc; ++i) {
    if (strcmp(argv[i], "+") == 0 ||
        strcmp(argv[i], "-") == 0 ||
        strcmp(argv[i], "*") == 0 ||
        strcmp(argv[i], "/") == 0) {
      int a = stack_pop(stack);
      int b = stack_pop(stack);
      if (argv[i][0] == '+') {
        stack_push(stack, a + b);
      } else if (argv[i][0] == '-') {
        stack_push(stack, b - a);
      } else if (argv[i][0] == '*') {
        stack_push(stack, a * b);
      } else if (argv[i][0] == '/') {
        stack_push(stack, b / a);
    } else {
      stack_push(stack, atoi(argv[i]));

    // if argv[i] is operator
    //   pop
    //   pop
    //   eval
    //   push
    // else
    //   push

  printf("stack_pop(stack): %d\n", stack_pop(stack));

  return 0;


Robots water plants
School teachers raise our children
Programs build programs


  1. Mitchell Wood says:

    My guess for a midterm question:

    What is the difference between the stack and the heap? In which situation would you want to use each?

  2. Isaac Schemm says:

    Given a char* named from_string and another char* named to_string (already allocated and at least as big as from_string), write one line of code (using strcpy) that will copy all except the first two characters of from_string into to_string.
    Hint: keep in mind that a char* is a pointer to the first character in a string, and C will read from that pointer until it finds a null terminator (0x00).

    Note: the strcpy function takes two arguments – a char* to write to, and a char* to copy from, in that order.

  3. Nolan Kriener says:

    Exam Problem:
    Write ruby code to validate an ip address (i.e XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX where the X’s are numbers from 0-9 and the values all between 0 and 255)

  4. Travis Boettcher says:

    My question:
    “Which parameter mode does C use, call-by-reference or call-by-value? Explain, and provide an example illustrating how to modify the value of a variable passed to a function without using a return statement.”

  5. Di says:

    Write EZMALLOC to make the line shorter:

    (char *) s = (char *) malloc ((strlen(s) + 1) * sizeof(char));

  6. Jack says:

    Write a line of assembly code that would create 3 local variables on the stack, in a function.

  7. John says:

    Write a regular expression for all words ending in “-ing”

  8. yakun says:

    Write assembly code to add all the odd numbers in 100.

  9. Nick Hasz says:

    Create a regular expression to validate an email address of the form (letters, numbers, and symbols – any length)@(letters and numbers only – any length).(letters only – 3 chars only). Alternatively, create a script to search through a file and pull out any email addresses and redirect them into a mailto function.

  10. Adam King says:

    Explain the difference between declarative and imperative programming. What are some examples of implementations or languages for each of these paradigms?

  11. Jordan says:

    Explain how functions work in Assembly and write a short function that will add 10 to whatever number is passed in.

  12. Karlie says:

    What is malloc and why would you use it? Write in pseudocode how to define an EZMALLOC macro.

  13. Thomas Kokemoor says:

    Write two equivalent regular expressions to match string literals, e.g. “\”\””.

  14. Benjamin Singer says:

    My Question:

    Write a script that accepts a path to a text file as its only command-
    line argument and prints out the file with every digit replaced with its inverse. Ex:
    Before: “0123456789”
    After: “9876543210”

  15. Jake says:

    What does Mario have in common with assembly code?

    1. Chris Johnson says:

      Are you going to leave us hanging on this one?

      1. Jake says:

        They both Jump!

  16. Nate says:

    Given two char*: string1=”concrete” and string2=”nation” write code in C using string manipulation functions such as strcpy or strcat to build the char* “concatenation”.

  17. Sam Dobias says:

    Midterm question:
    Write assembly code that will sort an array using functions and explain how the machine reads the function calls

    1. basemath says:


  18. Corey Feiock says:

    Midterm Question:

    Gmail allows a user to append text to the end of their username with the following format: originalEmailHandle+extraText@gmail.com. This is useful if you want to track which companies are selling your information to advertisers.

    You own a devious company that wants to circumvent this system. Write Ruby code that will delete everything after a “+” and before the “@” in an email address.

  19. Christian says:

    Write a regular expression in ruby that matches a valid ipv4 address. (e.g. matches but not or 1.2.3)

    1. Matthew says:

      That’s a cool question, Christian, but wouldn’t the “valid” ipv4 address be an issue for those of us without networking experience? Why can’t it be

      I do like the regex matching of a wide array of acceptable entries, though :) I just don’t know jack about networking.

      1. thepoynt says:

        Each of the four sections (between the .’s) can be in the range of 0-255.

  20. Matthew says:

    What are the unique uses of the following:




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